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  • 2024 Digital Journal + Planner (Free Template) & the Benefits of Journalling.

    Let me tell you a secret. Well... It's not really a secret, but if there's one thing that you should consider starting in 2024, *whispers* it's a journal. [Download here]. Whether in digital or paper form, journalling has been shown to have many benefits, but of course instead of just saying so, we'll back it up with research. Overall, journalling is an accessible and effective way to improve your wellbeing, no matter who you are. Today, pbmif introduces the 2024 journal/calendar/diary/activity book/scrapbook. It's based on theories and concepts in positive psychology and similar disciplines. Martin Seligman, a leading figure in positive psychology, devised what is known as the 'PERMA' model, which is comprised of five elements that contribute to wellbeing; positive emotion, engagement, relationships, meaning, and achievement. This journal aims to include these five elements. Positive emotions - What makes you feel positive emotions? Engagement - What activities do you really enjoy doing to a point where time goes by without you realising? Relationships - What relationships bring you support and joy? Meaning - What do you feel drawn to these days? What does having a sense of meaning mean to you? What do you find worthwhile? Accomplishment - How do you feel when you accomplish something? What drives you to persevere? Psychology, but make it fashion? Journalling is always in fashion. Vision board This journal asks you to create your own vision board. Set your vision. Waalkes et al. (2019) comment that vision boards can be a valuable tool for promoting career development and self-awareness. Creating vision boards can help individuals (in this case, students) to identify their strengths and interests, develop career goals, visualise their future, increase self-efficacy and motivation, and feel more connected to culture and community. Benedict (2021) suggest that creating and presenting vision boards can help individuals (in this case, students) to reflect on their experiences, again, identify their strengths and weaknesses, set future goals, visualise success, gain inspiration, and learn from their own and others' experiences. Have a Pinterest board already? You're a natural. Gratitude Expressing gratitude is an awesome experience. Deichert et al. (2019) suggest that gratitude is an effective way to improve wellbeing. Gratitude can help people to focus on the positive aspects of their lives, build better relationships, get more out of their social networks (after experiencing stress), build resilience, and live healthier lives. Zhang et al. (2022) suggest that gratitude is good for your wellbeing; it makes you happier and more satisfied with your life. Being grateful for specific things helps the most. Chui and Diehl (2021) found that that people who were more grateful were less likely to feel lonely in a study. The association between gratitude and loneliness was significant across all age groups, but it was strongest in younger adults. Maybe you could write a letter to someone expressing your gratitude for them (and show it to them if you want? Might be cringe, but what can you do? 💁‍♀️). Wishlist Here, you can add your material and experiential wants and must-haves. Even what you wish for others. Although it's great to have goals to work towards, this wishlist gives you the opportunity to evaluate whether or not you actually want something. Impulse purchasing is very easy to do these days, and we have more possessions than we actually need (overconsumption...). You have the opportunity to ask yourself questions such as, "Do I really need this?", "Am I going to use this more than once?", "Is this just a phase...?", "How is this going to make me feel in the long term?", "Can this wait?", or "Am I doing this to fit in?". A wishlist can help you to understand the motivations behind your buying habits. Life is not all about material possessions, but is also about your experiences and the memories you make too. Gilovich and Gallo (2020) suggest that experiential purchases (e.g., travel, concerts, events) tend to make people happier than material purchases (e.g., clothes, electronics, furniture) in the long run. Experiences are more memorable, shareable, and can lead to personal growth and development. Experiences are often associated with strong emotions and vivid memories, which can make them more meaningful and satisfying than possessions. Experiences can provide opportunities for learning and self-discovery. Is there somewhere you want to go? Who with? What do you want to do? What do you want to see? What do you want to feel? What do you want to discover? Do you want to learn something new? Do you want to improve on something that you find enjoyable? Life is not all about material possessions, but is also about your experiences and the memories you make too. Experiences are more memorable, shareable, and can lead to personal growth and development. Reflective journalling This journal prompts you to reflect. Portman (2020) suggests that reflective journalling is a great tool for self-awareness and self-confidence because it can help individuals (in this case, the participants were students) develop a deeper understanding of their thoughts, process experiences, develop a better understanding of themselves, identify their strengths and weaknesses, improve their writing skills, organise their thoughts and feelings, and express themselves with clarity. Write about your experiences with different scenarios, what are your thoughts about a topic of your choosing? Visited a new restaurant lately? Be a food critique. Watched a movie lately? Be a movie critique. Listened to a great recommended song on your Spotify? Be a music critique. Purchased a new item recently? Talk about the why. Is something or someone bothering you? Vent it out - How does this thing/person make you feel? What have they/it done to you? Had a positive interaction with someone? Note it down. According to Voci et al. (2019), journalling can help individuals (in this case, medical students) improve their psychological wellbeing and academic performance. Journalling can also help to reduce stress and anxiety, and improve self-esteem. Self-reflection, specifically, can help people to identify their strengths and weaknesses, develop goals for their lives, help people to cope with stress and challenges, build resilience, and develop a better understanding of their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours. MacIsaac et al. (2022) suggest that people who are naturally inclined to self-reflect are more likely to benefit from journalling than those who aren't. Life Crafting Schippers and Ziegler (2019) introduce the term, 'life crafting', a process of intentionally shaping your life to align with your values, passions, and goals. It's been shown to have a number of benefits, including increased happiness and wellbeing, greater life satisfaction, higher levels of self-actualisation, reduced stress, and increased resilience. The seven-step life crafting process is as follows: Discover your passions. What do you like to do? What kind of relationships would you like to have, both in your private life and your work life? What kind of career would you like? What lifestyle choices would you like? Reflect on your current and desired competencies and habits. What qualities do you admire in others? What competencies would you like to have? What are some habits you like or dislike in a person and yourself? Reflect on your present and future social life. What relationships energise you and what relationships don't do you any good? Who are the kinds of friends and acquaintances that are good for you? Who are the kinds of friends and acquaintances that you would like to have in the future? How would you like your ideal family life and broader social life to look like? Reflect on a possible future career. What is important in a job? What do you like to do? What kind of colleagues do you want? Who do you want to meet through your work? Write about your ideal future. Write about your best possible self in the future. Write down specific goal attainment and “if-then” plans. Formulate goals. Identify and describe ways to overcome any possible obstacles. How would you monitor your progress? Make public commitments to your goals. Communicate your goals to others, such as your friends, family, and co-workers. Scrapbook The journal has a sticker collection because number one, it's cute, and number two, I found a sense of accomplishment in completing Hello Kitty and Groovy Chick sticker activity books growing up (thank you mum). FioRito et al. (2021) suggest that scrapbooking can have a number of social and psychological benefits, including increased nostalgia proneness (ability to recall memories), social connection, and psychological comfort. Karwowski et al. (2021) suggests that creativity can be a positive coping mechanism during difficult times. This suggests that creativity can help people to cope with stress, anxiety, and other challenges. Creativity can also be a way to connect with others. By sharing our creative work with others, we can build relationships. Write a letter to your future self (or from your future self to now) Take the opportunity to write to your future self. Chishima at al. (2021) have found that both letter writing to your future self and in the perspective of the future self to the present self have a positive impact on wellbeing in times of stress. The communication with your future self serves as a means to distance yourself from the state you are presently in and to take a broader perspective in a larger time frame. Wellbeing wheel This journal includes a wellbeing wheel. Spain et al. (2021) express their admiration for the wellbeing wheel or (wellness wheel), a popular tool in therapy which can give you a better understanding of your wellbeing, strengths, and weaknesses. It can help you identify and pinpoint areas of your life that you are satisfied with (or not quite so), and feeds you crumbs on how to improve them or maintain them. From understanding any barriers, it can help you to create strategies, find the right support, and set relevant goals. You can adapt the wheel to make it more relevant to you; you can take away and add your very own dimensions. However, the most common dimensions are pies and foes: Physical - physical health, activity, exercise, diet, sleep Intellectual - learning, knowledge, skills, creativity, new interests Emotional - acknowledging and managing feelings, gratitude, growth Social - relationships, connections with others, communication Financial - management, savings, spending Occupational - career satisfaction, achievements, work-life balance Environmental - comfort, safety, surroundings, care for the environment Spiritual - meaning, beliefs, values FAQs How do I download the journal? Click on the link and the file should download automatically. I'm finding it hard to get started with journalling, what can help me? Honestly, journalling may not be easy for you when you first start out... There are no rules towards what you can journal, so it might seem either underwhelming or overwhelming to you based on your expectations. Just let your mind wander. Don't overthink it. Have fun with it. It's your journal where you can do whatever you like with it! Start off maybe writing a few sentences, or even single words instead of aiming to write a whole paragraph. If you'd like to see an example, watch this video. Can you add something to it please? Yes of course, just let me know what you'd like added (leave a guest comment below), thank you! What apps can I use this digital journal on? This is a PDF file, so any app where you can 'import' a PDF should work such as GoodNotes, Samsung Notes, etc. Can I print this journal? Yes, you can print the journal. I'm finding it boring, why is it not working for me?! One thing I disliked about journalling before I started it again is that I didn't know what to do, and got confused with other peoples' methods of journalling. Try journalling for a month in a way that you feel comfortable with and see where it can take you. Start off small by maybe writing a word or a sentence. Should I share my journal with others? It's up to you whether you want to share your journal with others. It may motivate you to work on your goals and build better relationships. However, you may want to keep some things private if you prefer. If you want to share how you're feeling with other people, it can be a tool to help you express yourself. I want to duplicate a page, how do I do this? If you're using Samsung Notes (example video), open the page view tab, tap on the three little dots on the page you want to duplicate and tap duplicate. You can also add, remove, and reorder pages. [Download here] ⬇ Thank you for reading. I hope that you find this journal useful. If you have any questions, you may leave them below (no sign up required). I will update this if necessary, so you might find a few changes. Find Psychology, But Make It Fashion (PBMIF) on TikTok, Instagram, Pinterest, and YouTube for useful tips and facts in consumer and fashion psychology. Have a happy and healthy 2024. :) LANGUAGE DISCLAIMER I've noticed that a lot of readers of PBMIF are international - Hiiiiiiii! - If you want to share any opinions on fashion come and tell me, I'd totally love to hear from you. If you want to understand this journal in a different language you can: (1) translate this article via your browser; (2) turn on subtitles on the YouTube video; and (3) translate the file, you can do so by using Google Translate and selecting 'documents' (translations will most likely be incorrect and lose its formatting however). There are two types of file: (1) Single page view (as seen in the video); and (2) 2 pages on 1 page. If it looks odd or you don't have the ability to use 2 page view please download (2) which shows 2 pages on 1 page. (1) SINGLE VERTICAL PAGES (if you use your tablet in portrait mode) Original: Baby pink: Baby blue: Brown: Green: Purple: Red: (2) (HORIZONTAL) (2 PAGES ON 1 PAGE) GoodNotes and Notability don't do 2 page view (outrageous!), you may want to use this format instead: Original: Baby pink: Baby blue: Brown: Green: Purple: Red: References Benedict, B. C. (2021). Using Vision Boards to Reflect on Relevant Experiences and Envision Ideal Futures. College Teaching, 69(4), 231-232. Chishima, Y., Liu, I-T. H-C., & Wilson, A. E. (2021). Temporal distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic: Letter writing with future self can mitigate negative affect. Applied Psychology: Health & Well-Being, 13(2), 406-418. Chui, H. & Diehl, M. (2021). Gratitude and loneliness in daily life across the adult lifespan. Current Psychology: A Journal for Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues. Crawford, A., Sellman, E., & Joseph, S. (2021). Journaling: A More Mindful Approach to Researching a Mindfulness-Based Intervention in a Junior School. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 20. Deichert, N. T., Fekete, E. M., & Craven, M. (2019). Gratitude enhances the beneficial effects of social support on psychological well-being, The Journal of Positive Psychology, 16(2), 168-177. https:.// FioRito, T. A., Geiger, A. R., & Routledge, C. (2021). Creative Nostalgia: Social and Psychological Benefits of Scrapbooking. Art Therapy, 38(2), 98-103. Gilovich, T & Gallo, I. (2020). Consumers’ pursuit of material and experiential purchases: A review. Consumer Psychology Review, 3(1), 20-33. Karwowski, M., Zielińska, A., Jankowska, D. M., Strutyńska, E., Omelańczuk, I., & Lebuda, I. (2021). Creative Lockdown? A Daily Diary Study of Creative Activity During Pandemics. Frontiers in psychology, 12. MacIsaac, A., Mushquash, A., & Wekerle, C. (2022). Writing Yourself Well: Dispositional Self-Reflection Moderates the Effect of a Smartphone App-Based Journaling Intervention on Psychological Wellbeing across Time. Behaviour Change, 1-17. Portman, S. (2020). Reflective Journaling: A Portal Into the Virtues of Daily Writing. The Reading Teacher, 73(5), 597-602. Spain, D., Stewart, V., Betts, H., & Wheeler, A. (2021). Wheel of Wellbeing (WoW) health promotion program: Australian participants report on their experiences and impacts. BMC Public Health, 21, 2037. Voci, A., Veneziani, C. A. & Fuochi, G. (2019). Relating Mindfulness, Heartfulness, and Psychological Well-Being: the Role of Self-Compassion and Gratitude. Mindfulness 10, 339-351. Waalkes, P. L., Gonzalez, L. M., & Brunson, C. N. (2019). Vision Boards and Adolescent Career Counseling: A Culturally Responsive Approach, Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 14(2), 205-216. Zhang, L., Li, W., Ye, Y., Yang, K., Jia, N. & Kong, F. (2022). Being grateful every day will pay off: a daily diary investigation on relationships between gratitude and well-being in Chinese young adults. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 18(6), 853-865.

  • How to create a capsule wardrobe for 2024 (and things to consider)!

    Find PBMIF on TikTok, Instagram, and YouTube for useful tips and facts in consumer and fashion psychology. A reader emailed in asking for an article on how to create a capsule wardrobe in 2024. Alexander has accepted the challenge. You can use this guide for style inspiration. If you have any questions, please leave a guest comment below! Thank you for reading. :) Hi, my name is Alexander, I'm 22, and I had a problem where I just had too many clothes in my wardrobe. This wasn't a case of having too much choice though. No, no. Every piece was either boring, outdated by twelve years, or reminded me of the past. I would find it hard to pick an outfit for work or to go out in. I didn't want to wear the same thing over and over because I didn't want to give the impression that I didn't own many clothes (I was super silly to think that!). I probably only wore about 10 per cent of my clothes. The other 90 per cent would be pushed into the depths of my closet never to see the light of day. The thing is, they were just sat there doing nothing. After getting my first 'real' job out of uni I felt like it was time for a change. And maybe redoing my wardrobe would make me feel like I was sealing the deal on entering a new chapter in my life. Yeah, all that stuff if you get what I mean. Since switching to a capsule wardrobe, I now care less about what other people think of my appearance, I have free-time because I don't have to plan outfits, I care more about where my clothing comes from, and I don't feel the need to buy into trends. Better yet, my wardrobe is clean! Marie Kondo who? (Sorry Marie Kondo). What is a capsule wardrobe and what are its benefits? A capsule wardrobe is basically a set of specially chosen clothes that are versatile, durable, of good quality, and timeless. These are pieces that will be worn a lot and for a long time. An optimist would say that a capsule wardrobe can last a lifetime. As a general rule, a capsule wardrobe must include pieces that are interchangeable. In other words, if you get dressed in the dark, you'll still look and feel well put together. If you have two trousers and five tops, that's ten outfits right there. Research has shown that implementing a capsule wardrobe into your life can save you money in the long term, distance yourself from trends and fast fashion, and take the stress out of choosing an outfit to wear... and time. You can make a wardrobe for each season, simplifying outfit planning all year round. Read a simplified article here: Reasons to Start a Capsule Wardrobe in 2023. I have listed some basic steps for you to develop your own capsule wardrobe, including things that I wish I'd known. Contents 1. Set some time aside to assess and clear out your wardrobe. 2. Plan out what you'd ideally like to wear. 3. Do not neglect comfort for style. 4. Figure out what style of clothing suits your body shape. 5. Figure out your 'colour season'. 6. You may find out that you prefer certain brands. 7. Start with good quality basics. A basic of your own might not be someone else's. (+ General guide) 8. Where can you get clothes to add to your capsule wardrobe? 9. Once your wardrobe is getting into shape, don't restrict your options. 10. Don't bother about what other people *may* think. 11. Last thing to note, keep your wardrobe in good condition. 1. Set some time aside to assess and clear out your wardrobe. Firstly, it's a good idea to examine your clothes to figure out what you'd like to continue wearing or let go. If you're not happy with your current wardrobe, have a think about why that is. Whenever you have free time to look around your wardrobe, find out what clothes you like and don't like. Clearing out your wardrobe will give you space to work with and will help you unclutter. It will take longer than you think to go through your clothing so set aside a few hours. You don't have to get rid of your current wardrobe and start from scratch. You will generally want to keep items that you wear - they can be used as a foundation for your capsule wardrobe. If you're finding it hard to decide whether to keep a piece or not, think of the last time you wore it and how it makes you feel when you wear it. If it's been over a year and has no significant value to you, it's maybe time to wave it buh-bye. You have many options with your unwanted clothes. Get a bag to put your clothing in to avoid them from getting in the way and mixed up with clothing that you want to keep. You can sell them for money on second hand clothing websites such as Depop and Vinted which are simple to explore and use. You'd be surprised by how many people would want to purchase your clothes, especially with tags on. Another option to consider is to give your unwanted clothing away, either to friends, family, or to a good cause. Your clothes do not need to be binned. It was hard to get rid of my current wardrobe I must admit. I found myself saying, "Oh I forgot I had that [insert clothing item here], I might wear that soon." No, you're absolutely not. 2. Plan out what you'd ideally like to wear. Before you go all out on finding new clothing, it's best to have a think about what you'd like your wardrobe to look like. Ask yourself, "do I see myself wearing this in the next [time frame]?" If not, then consider renting items instead. Read more: Fashion psychology shopping tips: 18 ways to save money when shopping for clothing. Do some research. Where do you live? What are the cultural expectations? What is the weather like where you live? Is what you want to wear practical? What will you be doing in your clothes? Is this item appropriate for where you'll be wearing it? Is it good quality? You can use sites like Pinterest, Instagram, YouTube, and TikTok for outfit inspiration, but be aware of fast fashion trends; a capsule wardrobe is intended to be timeless. Save posts, like them, or screenshot them so you can refer to them later. 3. Do not neglect comfort for style. Looking good is great, but comfort is an important factor in curating a capsule wardrobe. A capsule wardrobe is meant to make you feel confident. If your pieces don't fit you well or they feel like a pain to wear, you're not going to follow through with your wardrobe. 4. Figure out what style of clothing suits your body shape. One key thing to remember is that one size does not fit all. What might look good on someone might not look good on another. Choose pieces that fit you well and I promise you, your confidence will flourish. Fit is so important, please do not ignore this advice. You can find out which pieces flatter you by determining your body shape. Discover items that accentuate features that you love. 5. Figure out your 'colour season' (if you want). A capsule wardrobe is based on plain and/or neutral colours. It seems that beige, black, grey, white, and green are amongst the most popular colours. However, a neutral colour palette may not fit everyone. Search for your personal 'colour season'. It's an assessment of what colours suit you based on your hair colour, eye colour, and skin colour. I think that when you stick to a certain set of colours, it can get boring, and that is not an outcome that you would want. 6. You may find out that you prefer certain brands. Sometimes we have brands that we like more than others because of the values they're associated with or because their sizing is reliable. Remember though, brand names aren't as important as you might think. Try to explore brands that you've never really acknowledged before - you never know what you can find! 7. Start with good quality basics. A basic of your own might not be someone else's. There is no set number of clothes for a capsule wardrobe, but it is best to have enough outfits to wear for a variety of occasions such as work, lounging, grocery runs, school, weddings, parties, etc. I find it helpful to split pieces into sections such as workwear, formalwear, casualwear, and loungewear (Just clothes that I wear at home). I also arrange my clothes into a hot weather pile and a cold weather pile and arrange them accordingly when the seasons change. What I wear for work is totally separated from my other clothes. Have a different set of items for each season. Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter. It's good to start with a small amount of items first. Just remember if you have two bottoms and five tops, that's ten outfits right there (2 x 5 = 10). However, if I'm being honest, ten items would leave me to get bored pretty fast. This is a guide that works for me at the moment, but you can tailor it to your needs/lifestyle: Tops (whatever suits you) Plain button-up shirts and/or blouses (2+) - Can be worn to interviews, work, formal events, and dates. Plain white t-shirts (2+) - Can be worn under a blazer for a formal look, can be worn alone for a casual look. Plain t-shirts (2) - When you're not feeling in the mood to wear your white t-shirts. Sweaters/jumpers/knitwear (3) - Can be worn as an accessory or over tops. Bottoms (whatever style suits you) Black trousers (2) - Can be worn at any occasion, looks smart. Neutral trousers (1) - Looks smart, adds some versatility. Jeans (2) - Casual wear. Shorts (2) - Hot months. Skirts (2) - Keep in mind the length during each season. Joggers (2) - Loungewear. Just including tops and bottoms alone, that's around 80 well put together outfits already (9 x 9 = 81). Outerwear Jackets (2) - When it's cold, but not so cold. Winter Coats (2+) - Coats are great. Hoodies (2) - Do you really need more than two hoodies... really? Cardigan (1) - Is a cardigan classed as outerwear? Blazers (2) - When you want to look dressed up, but not TOO dressed up. Additional Gym wear set (2+) - In case they're in need of a wash. Swimwear (2) - How often do you go swimming? Tailored suit - A tailored suit made especially for you can elevate your look and make you appear rich and smart. No, really. Jumpsuit/playsuit/overalls (1) - Effortless and fun. Dresses (2+) - Formal, fun, workwear, holiday. Nightwear (2+) - If you wear clothes to sleep. Nightgown (1) - Because being cosy is great. Underwear - Don't forget underpants, bras, vests, and socks - Because these pieces can get worn out easily or outgrown, buy them when you need them. And make sure that they are suitable for the clothes you'll be wearing over them. Footwear Trainers (2) - Who doesn't love a good pair of trainers? Can also be used for sporting activities. White canvas shoes (1) - Must be white. Dress shoes (3) (Heels, brogues, loafers) - Give yourself some options. Boots/chelsea boots (2) - Look formal yet effortless. Sliders/sandals (2) - I need not explain. Indoor slippers - Think about all that dirt from outside you're bringing in when you wear shoes indoors. Accessories (this is entirely up to you, whatever floats your boat) Work bag. Rucksack - Never typed that in my life. Jewellery (Rings, traditional watches, necklaces, bracelets, etc.). Belts. Sunglasses. Ties. Scarfs. Hats. Gloves. Cufflinks. 8. Where can you get clothes to add to your capsule wardrobe? Creating a capsule wardrobe does not need to be expensive, time consuming, or completed in one go. Cheap doesn't always mean poor quality and expensive doesn't always mean good quality. Although you still have the option to shop in retail stores, you can also get good quality clothing from thrift stores, charity stores, second hand clothing sites, friends, family, and car boot sales. You'd be surprised by how many good quality items there are out there, yet to be found. Read more: How to sell on Vinted successfully (2023) | Tips It can be tempting to purchase the first thing you see due to sales tactics such as discounts and one time offers. Before you purchase an item, it is a good idea for you to carry out an internet search to see if another retailer is selling said item at a better deal. Better yet, most clothing items currently on sale have dupes; dupes are very similar items that can match the original item in design and quality. Keep in mind to check whether sellers and websites are trustworthy and have real reviews. Keep packaging that items come in for when you want to sell items. 9. Once your wardrobe is getting into shape, don't restrict your options. I've seen a lot of guides on capsule wardrobes saying that you should stick to certain types of clothing and colour palettes. Or, it needs to be minimalist. However, I think a capsule wardrobe is a trial and error activity that should be fun and allow your creative juices to flow. Don't put pressure on yourself to include only specific colours. If you like that neon pink t-shirt, go for it. It gives you individuality. If you think about it really, if everyone decided to create their own capsule wardrobe in the same way, we'd all be wearing neutral colours. How fun would that be? Yeah... 10. Don't bother about what other people *may* think. Nobody is going to care that you wear your outfits frequently. Seeing that you've made a wardrobe that suits you and makes you feel confident, there should be nothing to worry about. Re-wearing clothes is not a crime. Also, washing machines are a thing... 11. Last thing to note, keep your wardrobe in good condition. Keep your pieces in good condition to ensure that they last long and still look great. Follow care instructions on clothing labels and store items appropriately when not in use. If you decide that an item doesn't work for you anymore, you can always sell it or give it away knowing that it's in good condition. If you have any questions, please leave a guest comment below! Thank you for reading. :)

  • How to be attractive: Apparently, these 12 things make you attractive, according to psychology.

    Find Psychology, But Make It Fashion (PBMIF) on TikTok, Instagram, Pinterest, and YouTube (@pbmifmagazine) for useful tips and facts in consumer and fashion psychology. Hello, if you're reading this post, the chances are that you want to increase your attractiveness. But ask yourself why: Why do you want to? Is it for yourself or for someone else? Attractiveness is complex and is influenced by many, many, many factors, such as physical appearance, personality, individual differences, age, and culture. What one person might find attractive, another might not, and that's the truth. There is no one-size-fits-all answer to how to look or be more attractive, and there never will be. What is most important is that you're healthy, authentic, and comfortable with yourself. Most likely you're fine as you are right now, but society and trends are making you feel otherwise. This article was highly requested and it's of no surprise seeing that some societies place a lot of importance on 'attractiveness' these days as seen in work culture and social media. Take the findings of these studies with a pinch of salt because they're all flawed in one way or another and are just ideas to be further explored. The studies are pretty interesting. Contents Being in groups can apparently make you seem more attractive. Being successful can apparently make you seem more attractive. Sharing similarities with others apparently makes you seem more attractive. Being honest apparently makes you seem more attractive. Being desired by others apparently make you seem more attractive. Exercising apparently makes you seem more attractive. Doing good things apparently makes you seem more attractive. Smelling pleasant apparently makes you seem more attractive. Wearing heels apparently makes you seem more attractive. Wearing makeup in specific ways apparently makes you seem more attractive. Being seen as extroverted and agreeable apparently makes you seem more attractive. Not seeing someone's complete face can apparently make them seem more attractive. Being in groups can apparently make you seem more attractive. According to a study in China, Peng et al. (2020) found that: Individuals were rated as more attractive when they were part of a group, regardless of their individual attractiveness. This effect was stronger for larger groups than for smaller groups. This suggests that people tend to perceive individuals as more attractive when they're part of a group. Being successful can apparently make you seem more attractive. According to research on German football players by Meier and Mutz (2020): The relationship between attractiveness and professional success is complex and likely bi-directional. Attractiveness is not a prerequisite for success, but it can be a consequence of success. Successful individuals may invest more into their appearance over time, which can further enhance their attractiveness. Sharing similarities with others apparently makes you seem more attractive. This one seems a bit complicated, okay? In a study by Chu and Lowery (2023), it is suggested that: People who believe that their core attributes are caused by an underlying essence (self-essentialist reasoning) are more likely to be attracted to people who share their attributes. They believe that these shared attributes indicates a deeper shared 'essence'. In much simpler terms , people who think that their attributes are what make them who they are, are more likely to be attracted to people who have the same attributes. They believe that shared attributes are a sign that they have a deeper connection with these people. Being honest apparently makes you seem more attractive. In a study by Paunonen (2006): Individuals who were described as being honest were rated as more attractive than those who were described as being dishonest. This suggests that honesty is a highly valued trait that can significantly influence perceptions of physical attractiveness. More recently, in a study by Niimi and Goto (2023): People who were perceived as honest were rated as more attractive than people who were perceived as dishonest. An aggressive personality was suggested to decrease the facial attractiveness of men. Being desired by others apparently makes you seem more attractive. According to research by Rodeheffer et al. (2016): 'Female mate choice copying' is influenced by women's judgment of a man's quality based on the attractiveness of his partner. When men were pictured with an attractive partner, compared to when alone, women rated these men more positively on unobservable qualities (i.e., trustworthiness, wealth). When women see a male with an attractive mate, they suggest that he is more likely to have many unobservable positive qualities that women look for when selecting romantic partners. Women find men more attractive when they are desired by other women as well, this is because women believe that these men desired by other women are more likely to have good qualities. Female mate choice copying is a way for women to reduce their risk of making poor mating decisions. In simpler terms, women use their opinions of other women to help them choose a good partner. Exercising apparently makes you seem more attractive. According to research by Dobersek et al. (2020): Physical attractiveness is an important factor in choosing a partner. Exercise has many health benefits. Exercise may make people more attractive by increasing their self-confidence and vitality. People who exercise frequently are more likely to have higher self-perceived mate value (how they rate their own attractiveness). People with higher self-perceived mate value are more likely to desire partners with a higher mate value. These findings suggest that exercise may make people more attractive by increasing their self-perceived mate value. Other factors such as personality and socioeconomic status, could also explain the relationship between exercise and mate value. This study suggests that exercise may be a beneficial way to improve your self-perception and attract partners. According to research by Li et al. (2023): The researchers investigated the relationship between athletic performance and facial attractiveness. There is a positive correlation between athletic performance and facial attractiveness. They found that athletes with better performance were considered more attractive. Different skill-related physical fitness requirements have different performance patterns in face attractiveness. Correlation does not equal causation. Athletic performance may be a signal of physical fitness and reproductive potential, which are both important factors in selecting a potential partner. These findings suggest that athletic performance may be a way to increase attractiveness. Doing good things apparently makes you seem more attractive. According to research by Konrath and Handy (2021): There is a positive correlation between physical attractiveness and giving behaviours, suggesting that people who are physically attractive are more likely to engage in giving behaviours. The "good-looking giver effect" is stronger for women than for men, suggesting that physical attractiveness may be more important for women when it comes to giving behaviours. In simpler terms, there is a positive correlation between physical attractiveness and giving behaviours. Correlation does not equal causation. Engaging in giving behaviours could be a way to boost your attractiveness. Smelling pleasant apparently makes you seem more attractive. According to research by Feng and Lei (2022): Odour valence (how pleasant we find an odour) can influence how attractive we find faces. Faces presented with pleasant and neutral odours were judged as significantly more attractive than those with unpleasant odours, suggesting that pleasant odours can enhance facial attractiveness, while unpleasant odours do the opposite. Pleasant odours make faces seem more attractive, while unpleasant odours make faces seem less attractive. People find faces more attractive when they smell pleasant. The more pleasant, the more attractive the face seems. Wearing heels apparently makes you seem more attractive. According to research by Prokop (2022): The effect of high heels on perceived sexual attractiveness, leg length, and women's 'mate-guarding' was studied. High heels made women appear more attractive and longer-legged to both men and women. High heels promoted women's mate-guarding of their own partners. High heels make legs more attractive by visually prolonging leg length. Other factors, such as personality or socioeconomic status, could also explain the relationship between high heels and attractiveness or mate-guarding. Wearing makeup in specific ways apparently makes you seem more attractive. According to research by Batres et al. (2022), makeup can make you look more attractive by: Making your face look symmetrical. Making your face look average. Making your face look feminine. Making your face look younger. Making your face look healthier. In simpler terms, makeup can make you look more attractive by making your face look more like what people 'typically' find attractive. Jones et al. (2015) suggest that: Cosmetics can make people look more attractive by changing the contrast between different parts of their face, such as the eyes, eyebrows, skin and lips. This contrast is a cue to sexual dimorphism and youth, which are both considered attractive. Sexual dimorphism is the presence of physical differences between males and females. According to Aguinaldo and Peissig (2021): Faces with light makeup were rated as more attractive. Faces with heavy makeup were rated as more attractive than faces with no makeup, but less attractive than faces with light makeup. Faces with 'extreme' makeup were rated as least attractive. Light makeup is the most effective level of cosmetics application for enhancing facial attractiveness, competence, and sociosexuality. In simpler terms, the study found that people are perceived as most attractive and competent when they wear little makeup. Being seen as extroverted and agreeable apparently makes you seem more attractive. In a study by Meier et al. (2010): Participants who were high in agreeableness or extroversion were rated as more attractive than participants who were low in these traits. This suggests that sociable people are generally perceived as more attractive than unsociable people. People who are sociable (agreeable and extroverted) are generally perceived as more attractive than people who are unsociable. This may be because sociable people are more likely to take care of their appearance. Not seeing someone's complete face can apparently make them seem more attractive. In a study by Orghian and Hidalgo (2019): It was found that humans judge faces in incomplete photographs as physically more attractive than complete photos. Why? It may be because we tend to fill in missing information with positive inferences. Thank you for reading this post. If you have any questions, you may leave them below. :) Aguinaldo, E.R. & Peissig, J.J. (2021). Who’s Behind the Makeup? The Effects of Varying Levels of Cosmetics Application on Perceptions of Facial Attractiveness, Competence, and Sociosexuality. Frontiers in Psychology, 12. Batres, C., Jones, A. L., Barlett, C. P., Porcheron, A., Morizot, F., & Russell, R. (2022). Makeup works by modifying factors of facial beauty. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts. Chu, C. & Lowery, B. S. (2023). Self-essentialist reasoning underlies the similarity-attraction effect. Journal of personality and social psychology. Dobersek, U., Stallings, B., Wy, G.C., Case, C.R., & Maner, J.K. (2021). Does Exercise Make Me More Attractive? Exploring the Relations Between Exercise and Mate Value. Evol. Psychol. Sci., 7, 124-133. Feng, G. & Lei, J. (2022). The Effect of Odor Valence on Facial Attractiveness Judgment: A Preliminary Experiment. Brain Sciences, 12(5), 665. Retrieved from Holtzman, N. S. & Strube, M. J. (2013). People With Dark Personalities Tend to Create a Physically Attractive Veneer. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4(4), 461-467. Jones, A. L., Russell, R., & Ward, R. (2015). Cosmetics Alter Biologically-Based Factors of Beauty: Evidence from Facial Contrast. Evolutionary Psychology, 13(1). Konrath, S. & Handy, F. (2021). The Good-looking Giver Effect: The Relationship Between Doing Good and Looking Good. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 50(2), 283-311. Li, W., Zhu, H., Zhao, K., Zhu, H., Wang, X., & He, X. (2023). Good performance-high attractiveness effect: an empirical study on the association between athletes’ rankings and their facial attractiveness. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. Meier, H. E. & Mutz, M. (2020). Does Attractiveness Lead to or Follow From Occupational Success? Findings From German Associational Football. SAGE Open, 10(1). Meier, B. P., Robinson, M. D., Carter, M. S., & Hinsz, V. B. (2010). Are sociable people more beautiful? A zero-acquaintance analysis of agreeableness, extraversion, and attractiveness. Journal of Research in Personality, 44(2), 293–296. Niimi, R. & Goto, M. (2023). Good conduct makes your face attractive: The effect of personality perception on facial attractiveness judgments. PLoS ONE, 18(2). Orghian, D. & Hidalgo, C.A. (2020). Humans judge faces in incomplete photographs as physically more attractive. Sci Reports, 10, 110. Peng, C., Mao, Y., Pagliaro, S., Roberts, S., & Livi, S. (2020). Are Individuals Perceived as More Attractive within a Group? A Confirmative Study of Group Attractiveness Effect and the Cheerleader Effect in China. Healthcare (Basel), 8(3), 344. Prokop, P. (2022). High heels enhance perceived sexual attractiveness, leg length and women’s mate-guarding. Curr Psychol, 41, 3282-3292. Paunonen, S.V. (2006). "You are honest, therefore I like you and find you attractive". Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 237-249. Rodeheffer, C. D., Proffitt Leyva, R. P., & Hill, S. E. (2016). Attractive Female Romantic Partners Provide a Proxy for Unobservable Male Qualities: The When and Why Behind Human Female Mate Choice Copying. Evolutionary Psychology, 14(2).

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